Japan has a long history of plans and plans to deploy a missile defense system. During the US-Soviet struggle for hegemony, the United States launched the “Star Wars” plan. Japan took the initiative to cooperate with the United States in the missile defense system plan.
Origin of Japanese missile defense system
After bargaining, the US and Japan decided on the TMD plan. After North Korea tested the “Taepodong” missile in 1998, Japan was particularly active in deploying a missile defense system, cooperating with the United States to develop the “Navy All-Theater Defense” system.
In 2000, Japan launched a new version of the “Defense White Paper” for the first time clearly pointing out that China’s medium-range missiles. Both Japan and US invest billions of U.S. dollars to build sea-based and land-based missile defense systems. Japan adopts a three-step strategy in the deployment of the missile defense system, while advancing sea-based and land-based missile defense; it is equipped with 2 “Aegis” guided missile destroyers, 24 sets of “Patriot”-3 missile systems and 4 large early warning aircraft; In the mid-term, it invested 16.3 billion US dollars to purchase, in the later stage, it purchased 5 sets of the “Navy All Theater Defense” system and 2 “Aegis” missiles. Destroyers, 24 sets of “Patriot”-3 missile systems and a set of land-based monitoring systems, but Japan’s strategy for implementing the missile defense system has always been changing, and the above-mentioned missile defense plan has not been strictly implemented. Currently, Japan has 8 Aegis destroyers in service, including 4 King Kong class, 2 Atago class, and 2 Maya class destroyers.
Japan clearly pointed out that the deployment area of the missile defense system is aimed at the southwest, focusing on the defense of short- and medium-range missiles from neighboring countries. The TMD system built by the United States and Japan consists of three parts: the early warning system, the command center and the attack system. Once the early warning system finds enemy missiles Ascend into the air and quickly transmit relevant information to the command center. The command center issues a name to the attack system, and finally the attack system launches missiles to destroy the target; and the TMD system includes a low-level defense system and a high-level defense system. The former targets the target at a flying height of 40. For ballistic missiles under one kilometer, the latter intercepts ballistic missiles with an altitude of 40-200 kilometers.
Implementing the early stage missile defense plan in Japan, purchasing 24 sets of “Patriot”-3 missile systems and 4 E-767 early warning aircraft from the United States, 4 “Aegis” guided missile destroyers ships capable of launching 36 sea-based high-level interceptors, Japan deploys 6 “Patriot”-2 missile squadrons and 24 squadrons with a total of 120 launchers; “Patriot”-2 air defense missiles are replaced by “Patriot”-3 missile systems, and “Aegis” The guided missile destroyer adopts the “Standard-2” air defense missile and is replaced by the “Standard-3” air defense missile that can intercept ballistic missiles. The “Patriot”-3 missile system and the “Standard-3” air defense system are Japan’s efforts to build a land-based defense system and sea-based defense system.
Japan has modernized its King Kong-class destroyers to ensure the launch of Standard-3 missiles. The Kongo, Torumi, Myoko, and Kirishima guided missile destroyers test-fireD Standard-3 missiles in 2007-2010, except for the Chokai missile. The destroyer failed to intercept, and the remaining three successfully intercepted ballistic missile targets; in 2004, Japan set out to build two Atago-class destroyers and deploy six Aegis guided missile destroyers.
At the same time, Japan’s deployment of anti-missile early warning systems is undertaken by US missile early-warning satellites, ballistic missile early-warning radars, US X-band radars, Patriot-3 and Standard-3 anti-missile systems equipped with radars; in terms of detection capabilities, land-based and sea-based , Space-based, and space-based early warning and detection systems constitute a multi-level, omni-directional, large-depth ballistic missile early warning detection capability. The space-based system equipment is undertaken by the Japanese IGS series satellites and the U.S. military’s DSP and SBIRS series early warning satellites.
The early warning time of tactical missiles is about 30 and 4 minutes; the space-based early warning equipment is composed of 4 E-767, 4 E-2D and 13 E-2C early warning aircraft from Japan, serving as the communication relay mission; the ground-based is equipped with FPS-3 radar by Japan , FPS-5 radar and the introduction of American AN/TPY-2 radar, the former two have a detection range of 650-1200 kilometers; FPS-5 radar is deployed in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, Sado, Niigata, Kagoshima, Okinawa Prefecture The 4 areas of Yozadake, plus 7 FPS-3 radars and deployment of AN/TPY-2 mobile early warning radars in Aomori Prefecture and Kyoto Prefecture, the longest detection range reaches 4600 kilometers, and the formation of land-based missiles covering Japan’s mainland The early warning network looks at the entire territory of North Korea, southeastern Russia, China’s Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, South China Sea, northeastern and central regions; sea-based early warning equipment is equipped with 8 Aegis guided missile destroyers of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force with carrier AN/SPY- 1D passive phased array radar is assumed.
Japan’s land-based missile defense system
After the 1990s, Japan purchased US air defense missiles to gradually build a new generation of air defense system based on the “Patriot”-2 air defense system, with a maximum range of 160 kilometers; in 1998, the North Korean “Light Star” satellite incident took the opportunity to Japan. Purchase “Patriot”-3 missiles and “Standard”-3 missiles from the United States. Among them, the “Patriot”-3 missile is equipped with the main terminal anti-missile force of the land-based defense system, which is upgraded and purchased from the active “Patriot”-2 air defense system. “Patriot”-3 missile strategy, the system consists of AN/MPQ-65 radar, OE-349 antenna, and a 16-mounted launcher. The missile weighs 900 kg, the warhead weighs 91 kg, and the maximum speed is 5 Mach can accurately intercept within 50 kilometers, with an intercept height of 60-24 kilometers, equipped with 6 air defense missile groups, 24 air defense missile teams under its jurisdiction, 32 “Patriot”-3 missile launchers deployed, and 1 launcher is equipped with 8-16 missiles, Japan can be equipped with 256-512 missiles, and the US military stationed in Japan deploys 24 Patriot-3 missile launchers near Kadena Air Base in Japan, which can be equipped with 192-384 missiles. The United States and Japan can be equipped with up to 896 Patriot-3 missiles; using co-launch technology, it can launch Patriot-2 and Patriot-3 air defense missiles.
A Patriot missile company can be equipped with 8 launch vehicles, a single unit can carry 4 Patriot-2 missiles or 16 Patriot-3 interceptors, the latter adopts a solid rocket motor, pulse-Doppler active radar guidance The head and inertial navigation mid-section control system can intercept short-range ballistic missiles with a range of 1,000 kilometers, with a kill probability >80%.
According to the US military’s announcement that the theoretical probability of “two blocks and one” is 80%, it can intercept 224 and 448 missiles, including cruise missiles and short- and medium-range ballistic missiles. If Japan deploys along Tanegashima, Okinawa Islands, Miyako Archipelago, and Yonaguni Island, it will create an air defense barrier with a width of 320 kilometers and 100 kilometers, and a height of 25 kilometers, in the southwest of Japan to intercept Chinese missiles. A confrontation across the East China Sea. Japan is planning to deploy a land-based “Aegis” system, equipped with a long-range identification radar “SPY-7″ radar. Although the power strength is sufficient to support a detection range of 4000 kilometers, the system will be equipped with the newly developed SM-3 Blk2A interceptor, which is similar to the land-based” The “Patriot”-3 missile system is matched.
Japan’s sea-based missile defense system
At present, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force has 4 “King Kong” class and 2 “Atago” class destroyers, equipped with “Standard-3 Block1A” interceptor bombs, with an interception range of 600 kilometers, an interception height of 160 kilometers, and a flight speed of 8- 10 Mach, while the King Kong-class Aegis destroyers are equipped with AN/SPY-1D phased array radar, and the Atago-class destroyers are equipped with AN/SPY-1D(V) phased array radar system. Based on the Aegis baseline 7 system, the range can be found in time Long-range ballistic missiles are relatively far, with a fairly high end velocity.
They can intercept ballistic missiles with a range of 3,500 kilometers outside the atmosphere; the “Standard-3 Block 1B” interceptor has a maximum range of 1,200 kilometers, an interception height of 500 kilometers, and a flight speed of Mach 13-16 The maximum range of “Standard-3Block 2A” interceptor missiles is expected to exceed 2000 kilometers, the interception height exceeds 500 kilometers, the engine bullet diameter will increase to 530 mm, and the kinetic energy warhead will also be thickened to 530 mm; all three interceptor missiles can be equipped The “Maya” class destroyer can intercept short-range, medium-range and medium-range ballistic missiles; the standard-3 Block 1A interceptor missile is currently the core force of Japan’s maritime anti-missile missiles. It is matched with the standard-2MR missile intercepting low-level defense system, with a missile interception distance of 50 -100 kilometers, the interception height is 25-30 kilometers, and it can intercept missiles with a range of 1,000 kilometers.
Each U.S. Aegis destroyer is equipped with an average of 10 Standard-3 interceptor missile. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force can carry 8 Standard-3 missiles on average per Aegis ship. However, it takes turns to carry out the necessary maintenance and regular overhaul. Japan 8 Aegis The shield ship needs to be equipped with 432 standard-3 interceptors, 54 of which are deployed on each warship; usually equipped with 8 standard-3 missiles, which means that 8 Japanese ships can carry 64 standard-3 missiles, adopting the “one block, one” mode, The probability of successful interception is 60%, but it cannot take into account both air defense operations and anti-missile operations. It is difficult for the sea-based interception to defend against intensive saturation strikes. The United States has stationed 10 Aegis ships in Japan, equipped with 172 Standard-3 interceptor bombs. The combined total of the United States and Japan is 234 Standard-3 missiles. Combined with the deployment of 896 Patriot-3 missiles, a total of 1,130 interceptor bombs are deployed.
The strength of Chinese missiles
Japan and China face each other across the sea, and the distance is quite shorter. The Chinese city closest to Japan is Shanghai, which is about 690 kilometers away. It faces Japan’s Kyushu Island across the East China Sea. The farthest distance is 2000-3000 kilometers. It is completely in the Chinese Rocket Forces. Under the coverage of medium and short-range ballistic missiles such as Dongfeng-15 and Dongfeng-21.
At present, China is equipped with new conventional missiles—Dongfeng-11 and Dongfeng-15 short-range tactical ballistic missiles. The former consists of the Dongfeng-11 with a range of 300 kilometers and the Dongfeng-11A missile with a range of 825 kilometers, while the Dongfeng-15 is deployed. There are four models, namely Dongfeng-15 with a range of 600 kilometers, Dongfeng-15A with a range of 900 kilometers, Dongfeng-15B with a range of 800 kilometers and Dongfeng-15C with a range of 700 kilometers. Among them, the range of Dongfeng-15C is higher. The probability of hit error is 5-15 meters.
In the parade on the 60th anniversary of the National Day in 2009, in addition to the improved Dongfeng-15A and Dongfeng-11A and other new short-range tactical ballistic missile weapon systems, the Dongfeng-21C medium-range ballistic missile was also unveiled again. , Deployed A, B, C, D and other models, with a range of 1800-3000 kilometers, and the Dongfeng-21C can destroy a target of 1000-2500 kilometers.
In the 2015 Anti-Japanese War Victory Day military parade, Dongfeng-16 short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, Dongfeng-21D and Dongfeng-26 intermediate-range ballistic missiles, while Dongfeng-16 has a range of 800-1000 kilometers, and is nicknamed “Okinawa Express”. Dongfeng-11 and Dongfeng-15 missiles; Dongfeng-21D and Dongfeng-26 missiles are also known as “carrier killers”. They are anti-ship ballistic missiles used to strike aircraft carriers. The ranges of the two are seamlessly linked to achieve a range of 1800-4500 kilometers. Internal strike, the latter has a maximum speed of 18 Mach penetration capability, nicknamed “Guam Express”.
In the 2019 Anti-Japanese War Victory Day parade, the Dongfeng-17 ballistic missile and the Changjian-100 cruise missile were unveiled. The DF-17 is an active hypersonic missile, the latter is a supersonic cruise missile; the CJ-10 cruise missile is the third-generation cruise missile in active service. the Dongfeng-17 ballistic missile has a range of 1,800-2,500 kilometers. It uses a wave-riding hypersonic maneuver to boost the gliding missile. The overall structure is similar to that of the “Dongfeng” 21C. The medium-range ballistic missile approaching, the “flying dysprosium” with a speed exceeding Mach 5 can reach a flying speed of up to Mach 10 (approximately 12,359 km/h). Judging from the size of the wave body, it can carry multiple sub-missile heads and replace them with more decoys. The warhead, launching several Dongfeng-17 missiles at a time, the number of sub-missile heads will be doubled, which will exceed the maximum interception capability of the Japanese anti-missile system, and use hypersonic flight speeds to make the Japanese sea-based mid-section anti-missile interception failure. Flying at the edges of the atmosphere and in the upper layers, the United States and Japan have built anti-missile systems to intercept ballistic missile warheads, which is difficult to deal with hypersonic weapons.
The Longsword-100 (DF-100) supersonic cruise missile and the Longsword-10A missile. The latter has a range of 1500-2500 kilometers. Both are land-based mobile launchers. They are one of the “killer weapons” used by the People’s Liberation Army to carry out medium- and long-range strikes against the enemy. Short- and medium-range ballistic missiles can cover the entire territory of Japan; and Japan has built intermediate and short-range ballistic missiles and cruise missiles with a range of 3,500 kilometers. Moreover, the H-6 series bombers can be equipped with 4-6 Longsword-20 long-range air-launched cruise missiles, while the total number of H-6 series bombers in service reaches 200, which means that it can be equipped with 800-1200 Longsword-20 long-range air-launched missiles.
According to the PLA Navy and Air Force currently equipped with 8 different H-6 bomber aviation regiments, each regiment is equipped with 15-20 H-6 series bombers, the total number is also 120-160, close to Japan’s land-based and sea-based. Anti-missile limit; Longsword-10A land-based cruise missile launcher is equipped with 3 missile launchers at the same time, equipped with 3 Longsword-10A land-based cruise missiles; Longsword-100 supersonic cruise missile launcher is equipped with 2 missile launchers at the same time Box, equipped with 2 Longsword-100 supersonic cruise missiles, which are fully capable of medium and long-range precision strikes with meter-level precision target hitting and damage effects. According to the guidelines for the composition of 16 Longsword-100 supersonic cruise missile launch vehicles, it can be equipped with 32 Longsword-100 supersonic cruise missiles. Similarly, it can carry 48 Longsword-10A land-based cruise missiles; the Chinese Rocket Force is equipped with 3000 in active service. “Long Sword-10” and other series of cruise missiles. At present, the Chinese Rocket Force is equipped with 100 Dongfeng-16 medium- and short-range ballistic missiles, 150-200 Dongfeng-17 hypersonic ballistic missiles, 100 “Dongfeng” 21C and “Dongfeng” 21D intermediate-range ballistic missiles, plus 200- 250 Dongfeng-26 medium- and long-range ballistic missiles, with at least 4350 cruise missiles.
Japan has carefully constructed an anti-missile system and cooperated with the United States to build an anti-missile system in the Asia-Pacific region. It intends to adopt a multi-domain, diversified, and multi-layered defense system in depth. “To build the “Ninety Fleet”, develop space and air-based early warning construction, accelerate the construction of its anti-missile early warning system, and strive to build a missile monitoring network covering the whole country, relying on the deployment of anti-missile systems in the East China Sea to suppress the Chinese rocket force, and the Aegis The destroyer is deployed in the East China Sea, and the point of the sword is self-evident, but it is difficult to achieve the attempt; the Japanese Self-Defense Force Patriot-3 missile unit and the Aegis system are implemented in the atmosphere and outside the atmosphere against ballistic missiles and cruise missiles. In the mid-stage interception, the gap in the number is obvious, and it is difficult to achieve the goal.